Underlying conditions

Several diseases cause impaired ocular motor function, some of them are treatable.

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Underlying conditions
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Bilateral vestibulopathy

Bilateral vestibulopathy is characterized by postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground and head or body movement-induced oscillopsia in some patients. There are no symptoms while sitting or lying down under static conditions.

Diagnosis

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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

The leading symptom of BPPV are recurrent short attacks of spinning vertigo, which are induced by changes of head or body position relative to gravity. Typically this occurs when patients get up in the morning. It is the most frequent cause of vertigo. In most patients it is cause by a so-called canalolithiasis (freely moving clot of otoconia) of the posterior canal (>95%), rarely of the horizontal canal.

Signs and Symptoms

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Menière’s Disease

The leading symptoms of Menière’s disease are recurrent attacks of vertigo associated with impairment of hearing, tinnitus and fullness in the affected ear. It is evidently caused by an imbalance between the production and reabsorption of the endolymph, leading to an endolymphatic hydrops. The increased pressure from the excess fluid leads to the rupture of the membrane separating the endolymph space from the perilymph space and/or the opening of cation channels.

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Wallenberg syndrome

Horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmusWallenberg syndrome is caused by an ischemia of the dorsolateral medulla oblongata, which belongs to the vascular territory of the vertebral artery or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Like other forms of stroke, this condition should always be treated as an emergency.

Signs and Symptoms

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Cerebellar Degeneration

Cerebellar degeneration is a general term that describes neuronal cell death in the cerebellum. Damage of the neurons in the cerebellum can be the result of a brain-specific disease or other conditions affecting the body in general.

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